It is essential at any age, but particularly important for older adults, to operate a motor vehicle that “fits” them. As we age, we become more susceptible to injuries or death related to a crash event. Physical changes related to normal aging often require modifications to the way we drive. Changes in vision, flexibility, strength, range of motion and height may impact our comfort. Being able to optimize the drivers’ ability to visualize the road and to see other vehicles surrounding them is a critical factor in safety on the road. The ability to operate the vehicle itself in the safest manner possible requires that the driver and occupants be positioned within the vehicle properly.
It is very important for older adults to be positioned properly and comfortably in the vehicle in which they ride. There are a variety of pieces of adaptive equipment or modification items that can have a dramatic effect on safety and comfort. Examples include pedal extenders, panoramic mirrors, hand controls, seat lifts, or steering devices.
If an older adult experiences difficulty reaching for or engaging the seatbelt, simple assistive devices are available to make this task easier. Items such as a seatbelt adjuster, handibar, or expanded mirrors are available either in home catalogs or at medical supply or auto parts stores. Other items that do not require a specialist to install are easy-locking seatbelts, visor extenders, steering wheel covers to improve grip, seat and back support cushions to relieve back pain or improve the ability to see over the steering wheel, keyless ignition, doors that automatically lock and open.
The National Mobility Equipment Dealers Association (NMEDA) advocates and supports excellence in providing safe, reliable vehicles and modifications to enhance accessibility for people with special needs.
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) addresses automotive safety issues for persons with disabilities on their website.
Some devices are simple and easily obtained, while others may require an assessment by an occupational therapist or driver rehabilitation specialist to ensure proper installation and training on their safe use. Driver rehabilitation specialists, many of whom are also occupational therapists, have specialized training in identification of a driver’s strengths and the physical, visual and cognitive challenges presented by the task of operating a motor vehicle. They can evaluate an individual’s ability to safely operate a vehicle and make recommendations about ways to limit risks. Many of them are located in a healthcare setting in your community.
Visit the AOTA website to find a Driver Rehabilitation Specialist.
MyCarDoesWhat.org is a national campaign to help educate drivers on new vehicle safety technologies designed to help prevent crashes. These technologies range from increasing the stability and control of cars to providing warnings about crash threats to automatically intervening to avoid or reduce the severity of a crash.
AAA recommends that aging drivers choose a vehicle based upon their specific needs. You can view AAA's Smart Features for Older Drivers on their website, as well as a brochure and vehicle list.
AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety and the University of Florida National Older Driver Research and Training Center are helping older adults keep their safe driving ability for as long as possible. They have compiled a list of 30 safety features that should be on cars for older drivers. Among them are:
- Active head restraints that move forward to cushion the head if the car is hit from behind
- Adjustable pedals so petite people can safely reach them without being too close to airbags
- Power-operated seats
- Large knobs and buttons
- Four doors make entry and exit easier and the doors are usually not as heavy as a two-door vehicle
- Keyless entry
- Tilt steering allows the driver to find a safe distance from the front airbag
The Today Show has a video that demonstrates some of these safety features and you can view it on their website.
Family Car Guide has information on Car Buying Tips for Savvy Older Drivers.
The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) is an independent, nonprofit, scientific, and educational organization dedicated to reducing the losses---fatalities, injuries, and property damage---from crashes on the nation’s highways. It is wholly supported by auto insurance companies. You can find more information on the safety rating for particular vehicles and models on their website. They also produce Status Reports on select topics including top safety picks, motorcycles, bumpers, convertibles, and older drivers.
CarFit is a community-based safety program developed by AARP, AAA and the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA). Their goals are to help aging drivers improve the fit of their vehicle for their safety and comfort, promote conversations among older adults and families about driving safety, and link adults with relevant local resources that can help them drive safer longer.
Through a safety grant funded by the FDOT, CarFit training events for event coordinators and technicians plus consumer events for older adults are being held all across the state. CarFit is a key component to help stay proactive about your safe driving skills plus gain valuable community transportation resources. To find an upcoming events in your area, visit the CarFit website. Or click here for the event listing on our Facebook page.
CarFit check-ups only take about 20 minutes. Trained technicians and/or health professionals review several items including the following:
- Clear line of sight over the steering wheel
- Adequate distance from the front airbag
- Proper positioning of seat, usage of foot pedals, and all mirrors
- Proper safety belt use and fit
- CarFit Brochure in English
- CarFit Brochure in Spanish
- Florida CarFit Fact Sheet
- Florida CarFit Tip Card in English
- Florida CarFit Tip Card in Spanish
Other CarFit resources:
- AARP has detailed information on CarFit on their Driver Safety website where you can view the exam checklist and even videos walking you through a CarFit exam.
- Check out the Sun-Sentinel's "Seniors find one size does not fit all when it comes to safer cars" article and video.
- The Senior Resource Alliance and Carlin Rogers Consulting have prepared a report for the FDOT on "CarFit: Lessons Learned from Florida's Aging Road User Participants". Florida has been proactive in bringing this injury prevention program to communities and organizations throughout the State. This report reviews data from the national CarFit database and examines trends and lessons learned from the over 1400 participants in Florida CarFit events.
The primary responsibility of a driver is to operate a motor vehicle safely. The task of driving requires full attention and focus. Cell phone use can distract drivers from this task. The safest action is to refrain from using a cell phone while driving. Research has shown that use of a hands-free device (headset, speakerphone or other device) does not eliminate the distraction of the conversation. If a driver must make or take a call, the best strategy is to pull onto the shoulder of the road safely. Other distractions in the vehicle should be minimized as well. It is recommended that you carry an additional power source for a cellular phone in your vehicle, for use in case of emergency. Learn more on NHTSA's Driver Distractions website.
The rules for operating vehicles such as golf carts, scooters, etc. vary from state to state and among municipalities. All local and state traffic laws must be obeyed. No insurance is required unless mandated by local authorities. Similar regulations are in place for low speed vehicles (LSV) such as vehicles must have adequate and functioning equipment. This includes adequate brakes; reliable steering; safe tires; rear view mirror; red reflectors (front and rear). Local governments may require inspection of LSV's. Section 316.2122, Florida Statutes, governs the operation of Low Speed Vehicles on certain roadways.
In Florida, golf carts can only be operated on local or county roads designated for such use. The posted speed limit must be 30 MPH or less. They cannot be used on sidewalks or state roads. A user can only cross a state road at a crossing designated for golf carts. Golf carts can only be used between sunrise and sunset. Section 316.212, Florida Statutes, governs the operation of golf carts on certain roadways.
The Safe Mobility for Life Coalition's Golf Cart Brochure contains information on how to safely operate your golf cart in Florida. If you are interested in receiving a hard copy, please contact our Safe Mobility for Life Resource Center.
When in a crosswalk, pedestrians and any individual using an adaptive device always have the right of way. Motorized wheelchairs or personal assistive mobility devices (as defined in Section 316.003(83), F.S.) are governed by pedestrian laws. Section 316.2068, Florida Statutes regulates their usage.
Special safety considerations when operating a motor home includes both in-vehicle and on the road considerations. Examples include propane usage and storage, vehicle and content weight, tires, towing, electrical system, fire prevention and motor fuel options. You can find more information in the article RV Safety: Know Your Recreational Vehicle, Maintain It, and Use It Safely.
The AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety has released a report that synthesizes the use, perception, and outcomes of older drivers and advanced in-vehicle technologies and it can be accessed here: Keeping Older Adults Driving Safely: A Research Synthesis of Advanced In-Vehicle Technologies.
The Hartford Top Technologies for Mature Drivers: Consumer Insights asked drivers to rank the Top Technologies for safety. The survey of drivers age 50+ found that:
- 51 percent said they would feel safer if their vehicle had all of the most up-to-date technologies. Interestingly, women were more likely than men report that having all 10 technologies would make them feel safer
- 55 percent plan to buy or lease another vehicle in the next five years, suggesting that as more and more of these features are incorporated into new vehicles, a growing number of consumers 50+ could be driving cars with these technologies
- Women (60%) are more likely than men (54%) to report that driving technologies would make them feel safer
- 47 percent of those with new technologies go to their vehicle’s owner’s manual to learn to use the technology
The future is here. Gone are the days when self-driving cars were just a thing of science fiction. The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) is collaborating with state universities to gain a better understanding of any implications associated with planning for and integrating autonomous and connected technologies into Florida existing infrastructure. Read the research report Enhanced Mobility for Aging Population Using Automated Vehicles and visit the Florida Automated Vehicles web page for further information.
Proper and consistent use of safety belts is the most effective strategy to protect an occupant from crash related injuries. For an adult, the safety belt should be worn low and tight across the hips and not across the stomach. The shoulder belt should come over the collar bone, away from the neck and cross over the breastbone. It should fit snugly. It should never be worn behind the back because that does not effectively protect the wearer in the event of a crash.
In Florida, per Section 316.614(5), F.S. front seat passengers 18 years of age and older are required to use safety belts.
Driver and passenger airbags protect front seat occupants in the event of a front end collision. Side or “curtain” airbags offer protection in side impact collisions. A driver should position the seat at least 10 inches away from the steering wheel in order to maintain a safe distance from the airbag and to avoid injury if it deploys. Information about your airbags is available along with information on minimizing risk and injury.
Head restraints help prevent your head from being snapped in a rear-end collision. It is important that the head restraint protects the middle of your head and not serve as a “resting” spot.
It is important for the driver to always have a good view of the front, side, and rear of the vehicle. Vehicles equipped with side view mirrors on both sides of the car assist the driver to make safer lane changes. Outside mirrors should help eliminate “blind spots”.
Car and Driver has written an article and illustration on How to Adjust Your Mirrors to Avoid Blind Spots that can be helpful.
Navigation and communication systems, like OnStar or other global positioning systems add a level of safety and security to an automobile.
Clear thinking and prior consideration is critical if you are in the situation of being in a vehicle that leaves the highway and ends up in water. Wearing your seatbelt is, as always, a protective factor to prevent injury during the crash event. You can access a video and text that suggests several actions that you can take to escape safely on the Florida Highway Patrol's Surviving a Submerging Vehicle website.
It is critically important to have every occupant in a vehicle use a restraint. The proper child safety seat depends on the child’s age and height. Only children over age 8 may use the vehicle’s seat belt, as the vehicle equipment is designed to protect adults.
Florida law (Section 316.613, F.S.) requires all children age 5 or younger to use an approved child restraint device while riding in a motor vehicle. For safety reasons, all children 12 and under should ride in the back seat of a vehicle. You can learn more safety information about traveling with children at the following links:
Infants from birth to 1 year old should be placed in a rear-facing car seat and be positioned in the back seat. The duration is dependent upon manufacturer recommendations for a particular seat. At a minimum, children should be in a rear-facing seat until age 1 and weighing 20 lbs. Forward-facing safety seats are recommended until the child reaches the upper weight or height limit (usually age 4 and 40 pounds) and the child should always be in the back seat.
Booster seats are appropriate until the vehicle seat belt fits properly, usually at age 8 or when a child reaches 4'9" in height.
Proper installation of a child safety seat is critically important. Locate a Florida Occupant Protection Specialist who can help you to install a child’s seat properly or to obtain a low cost safety seat information on FDOT's Child Passenger Safety and Occupant Protection website.
You can find a child safety seat inspection station near you through the NHTSA's Safer Car website Child Car Seat Inspection Station Locator. Information on ease of use for particular models is available as well as lots of other helpful material on the Parents Central section of http://www.safercar.gov/.
The Cost of Driving
AAA's annual evaluation of driving costs reveals that small sedans are the least expensive vehicles to drive, however small SUVs, hybrids, and electric vehicles all offer lower-than-average driving costs to U.S. drivers. Conversely, of the nine categories included in the evaluation, pickup trucks are the most expensive vehicles to drive at annually.
This year’s study includes four new vehicle categories: small SUVs, pickup trucks, hybrids and electric vehicles. As a result of this shift in methodology, the numbers in this edition are not directly comparable to those in earlier editions.
- Car design considerations are highlighted in the AARP bulletin Sleek Car vs. Safe Car
- The information contained in NHTSA's Adapting Motor Vehicles for Older Drivers brochure is based on the experience of driver rehabilitation specialists and other professionals who work with people who require adaptive devices for their motor vehicles